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Title: Criteria for the absence of quantum fluctuations after spontaneous symmetry breaking

The lowest-energy state of a macroscopic system in which symmetry is spontaneously broken, is a very stable wavepacket centered around a spontaneously chosen, classical direction in symmetry space. However, for a Heisenberg ferromagnet the quantum groundstate is exactly the classical groundstate, there are no quantum fluctuations. This coincides with seven exceptional properties of the ferromagnet, including spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, a reduced number of Nambu–Goldstone modes and the absence of a thin spectrum (Anderson tower of states). Recent discoveries of other non-relativistic systems with fewer Nambu–Goldstone modes suggest these specialties apply there as well. I establish precise criteria for the absence of quantum fluctuations and all the other features. In particular, it is not sufficient that the order parameter operator commutes with the Hamiltonian. It leads to a measurably larger coherence time of superpositions in small but macroscopic systems. - Highlights: • Precise criteria for absence of quantum fluctuations in symmetry-broken states are established. • It is not sufficient that the order parameter commutes with the Hamiltonian. • Clarifies relation between quantum fluctuations and type-B Nambu–Goldstone modes. • Testable through absence of fundamental limit on maximum coherence time of macroscopic superpositions.
Authors:
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22451241
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Annals of Physics; Journal Volume: 361; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; FLUCTUATIONS; HAMILTONIANS; QUANTUM MECHANICS; QUANTUM SYSTEMS; SYMMETRY BREAKING; WAVE PACKETS