skip to main content

SciTech ConnectSciTech Connect

Title: Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan

This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO{sub 2}e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO{sub 2}e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO{sub 2}e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO{sub 2}e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use inmore » the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy from crop residues, and promotion of organic fertilizers. - Highlights: • We quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC). • PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural and industrial activities. • GHG emissions accounts to 44,965, 42,875 and 43,839 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. • GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions i.e. 80%. • Implications for GHG emissions mitigation strategies for PTC are also discussed in detail.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [4]
  1. Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)
  2. (Pakistan)
  3. Leaf Agronomy Manager, Pakistan Tobacco Company, Akora Khattak Factory, P.O. and District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan)
  4. University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22447548
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 134; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FERTILIZERS; FOOD; GREENHOUSE EFFECT; GREENHOUSE GASES; LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT; METHANE; PETROLEUM; PLATINUM CARBIDES; POTASSIUM; RESIDUES; TOBACCO PRODUCTS; WHO; WOOD FUELS