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Title: Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure wasmore » associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.« less
Authors:
; ;  [1] ; ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)
  2. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)
  3. Department of Community Health, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden)
  4. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22447544
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 134; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ANDROSTENEDIONE; BLOOD; CADMIUM; CONCENTRATION RATIO; CREATININE; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ESTRADIOL; GLOBULINS; HAZARDS; IN VITRO; IN VIVO; MAMMARY GLANDS; NEOPLASMS; REGRESSION ANALYSIS; SEX; SWEDEN; TESTOSTERONE; THERAPY; WOMEN