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Title: Environmental and health impacts of fine and ultrafine metallic particles: Assessment of threat scores

This study proposes global threat scores to prioritize the harmfulness of anthropogenic fine and ultrafine metallic particles (FMP) emitted into the atmosphere at the global scale. (Eco)toxicity of physicochemically characterized FMP oxides for metals currently observed in the atmosphere (CdO, CuO, PbO, PbSO{sub 4}, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZnO) was assessed by performing complementary in vitro tests: ecotoxicity, human bioaccessibility, cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential. Using an innovative methodology based on the combination of (eco)toxicity and physicochemical results, the following hazard classification of the particles is proposed: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Both cadmium compounds exhibited the highest threat score due to their high cytotoxicity and bioaccessible dose, whatever their solubility and speciation, suggesting that cadmium toxicity is due to its chemical form rather than its physical form. In contrast, the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} threat score was the lowest due to particles with low specific area and solubility, with no effects except a slight oxidative stress. As FMP physicochemical properties reveal differences in specific area, crystallization systems, dissolution process, and speciation, various mechanisms may influence their biological impact. Finally, this newly developed and global approach could be widely used in various contexts of pollution by complex metal particles and may improvemore » risk management. - Highlights: • Seven micro- and nano- monometallic characterized particles were studied as references. • Bioaccessibility, eco and cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential assays were performed. • According to calculated threat scores: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;
  1. Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)
  2. (Laboratoire d'écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l'Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)
  3. (French Agency for Environment and Energy Management), 20 Avenue du Grésillé, BP 90406, 49004 Angers Cedex 01 (France)
  4. Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22447537
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 133; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ANTIMONY OXIDES; CADMIUM; CADMIUM OXIDES; CLASSIFICATION; COPPER OXIDES; CURRENTS; DISSOLUTION; DOSES; EMISSION; HAZARDS; IN VITRO; LEAD OXIDES; LEAD SULFATES; MANAGEMENT; OXIDATION; PARTICLES; POLLUTION; STRESSES; TOXICITY; ZINC OXIDES