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Title: Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association betweenmore » urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in U.S. adults. • Cadmium in both blood and urine was borderline significantly associated with the risk of AMD. • Blood lead was not associated with the risk of AMD. • The association between urine cadmium and AMD was stronger in whites than in blacks.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [3]
  1. Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  2. Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)
  3. (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22447536
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 133; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ANIMAL TISSUES; BLOOD; CADMIUM; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CONCENTRATION RATIO; ELDERLY PEOPLE; GEOCHEMICAL SURVEYS; GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS; HAZARDS; INDEXES; LEAD; MARINE SURVEYS; NUTRITION; OXIDATION; PHOSPHORUS 27; PUBLIC OPINION; RETINA; TOBACCO SMOKES; URINE; WISCONSIN