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Title: Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: Some strategies for improving current conditions

Highlights: • Heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) determined. • Current waste management condition of CFLs in Iran assessed. • Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. • We propose extended producer responsibility (EPR) for CFLs waste management. - Abstract: From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iranmore » was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products’ useful life, a proportion of ARF (for example, 50%) can be refunded. On the other hand, the government and Environmental Protection Agency should support and encourage recycling companies of CFLs both technically and financially in the first place.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [4]
  1. Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
  2. Student Research Committee, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
  3. Medical Education Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
  4. Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22443577
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Waste Management; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT; ARSENIC; CHROMIUM; FLUORESCENT LAMPS; GREENHOUSE GASES; HEAVY METALS; ICP MASS SPECTROSCOPY; IRAN; LEAD; MERCURY; MUNICIPAL WASTES; NICKEL; RECYCLING; SERVICE LIFE; TOXICITY; URBAN AREAS; WASTE MANAGEMENT