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Title: Yttrium recovery from primary and secondary sources: A review of main hydrometallurgical processes

Highlights: • Review of the main hydrometallurgical processes to recover yttrium. • Recovery of yttrium from primary sources. • Recovery of yttrium from e-waste and other types of waste. - Abstract: Yttrium is important rare earths (REs) used in numerous fields, mainly in the phosphor powders for low-energy lighting. The uses of these elements, especially for high-tech products are increased in recent years and combined with the scarcity of the resources and the environmental impact of the technologies to extract them from ores make the recycling waste, that contain Y and other RE, a priority. The present review summarized the main hydrometallurgical technologies to extract Y from ores, contaminated solutions, WEEE and generic wastes. Before to discuss the works about the treatment of wastes, the processes to retrieval Y from ores are discussed, since the processes are similar and derived from those already developed for the extraction from primary sources. Particular attention was given to the recovery of Y from WEEE because the recycle of them is important not only for economical point of view, considering its value, but also for environmental impact that this could be generated if not properly disposal.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Department of Industrial Engineering, of Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, Zona industriale di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)
  2. SAT, Austrian Society for Systems Engineering and Automation, Gurkasse 43/2, A-1140 Vienna (Austria)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22443576
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Waste Management; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; EXTRACTION; HYDROMETALLURGY; MATERIALS RECOVERY; ORES; RARE EARTHS; RECYCLING; REVIEWS; SOLUTIONS; WASTE PROCESSING; YTTRIUM