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Title: Diffusion behavior of copper atoms under Cu(II) reduction in Cucurbit[8]uril cavity at elevated temperatures

In this paper we describe copper clusters and nanoparticles formation by the reduction of copper (II) ions inside cavities of macrocycle molecules using supramolecular compound [Cu(Cyclen)(H{sub 2}O)@CB[8]](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·12H{sub 2}O followed by Cu atoms diffusion between macrocycle CB[8] molecules. To understand the copper cluster genesis and nanoparticles formation x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), FTIR-spectroscopies, HRTEM and thermal analysis were used. It was found that atomic Cu(0) was not fixed in the cavity under heating, and Cu clusters and nanoparticles were formed by heating of supramolecular compound powder at 200–340 °C in He, but more preferably in H{sub 2}. The process was partially reversible after heating the powder up to 300 °C for 15 min and air exposure for a few months. The process was irreversible after heating of the sample at temperatures higher than 340 °C due to CB[8] cavitand decomposition. In general, exposure of the samples to air leads to oxidation and hydration clusters of Cu. Nanoparticles up to 600 nm in size formed on the surface of agglomerated polycrystalline powder at temperatures lower than 200 °C. The clusters less than 7 nm and 40 nm in size were formed at 300 °C inside and outsidemore » agglomerating polycrystalline powder, respectively. The diffusion coefficient of copper atoms inside polycrystalline CB[8] agglomerates equal to 10{sup −10} cm{sup 2}/s by heating the samples at 300 °C was found. - Graphical abstract: Copper nanoparticles and clusters are formed by the reduction of copper (II) ions inside cavities of macrocycle molecules at 200–340 °C in He, but more preferably in H{sub 2} using supramolecular compound [Cu(Cyclen)(H{sub 2}O)@CB[8]](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·12H{sub 2}O followed by Cu atoms diffusion between macrocycle CB[8] molecules. Nanoparticles up to 600 nm in size formed on the surface of agglomerated polycrystalline powder at temperatures lower than 200 °C. The clusters less than 7 nm and 40 nm in size were formed at 300 °C inside and outside agglomerating polycrystalline powder, respectively. - Highlights: • We considered Cu NP's formation at CuCyclen thermolysis in H{sub 2} and He. • Initial complex CuCyclen was located inside cavitand CB[8]. • Cu(0) reduced in cavities diffuse between CB[8] molecules and Cu nuclei appear. • NPs less than 7 and 50 nm were formed inside and outside the CB[8] powder. • Coefficient of Cu(O) diffusion is 10{sup −10} cm{sup 2}/s for temperature at 300 °C.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ; ; ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk, Prospekt Akademika Lavrent’eva 3 (Russian Federation)
  2. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk, Pospekt Akademika Lavrent’eva 5 (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22443498
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Solid State Chemistry; Journal Volume: 221; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; COPPER; DECOMPOSITION; DIFFUSION; ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE; FOURIER TRANSFORMATION; HEATING; HYDROGEN; INFRARED SPECTRA; MOLECULES; NANOPARTICLES; NITRATES; NITROGEN OXIDES; OXIDATION; POLYCRYSTALS; POWDERS; SPECTROSCOPY; SURFACES; THERMAL ANALYSIS; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; X-RAY DIFFRACTION