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Title: The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells

Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role inmore » cobalt-induced lung toxicity. - Highlights: • Particulate and soluble cobalt are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung cells. • Soluble cobalt induces more cytotoxicity compared to particulate cobalt. • Soluble and particulate cobalt induce similar levels of genotoxicity. • Particle-cell contact is required for particulate cobalt-induced toxicity.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ; ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)
  4. Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22439797
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 278; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CARCINOGENS; CELL CYCLE; COBALT; COBALT CHLORIDES; COBALT IONS; COBALT OXIDES; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CONCENTRATION RATIO; EFFICIENCY; FIBROBLASTS; HUMAN POPULATIONS; LUNGS; MITOSIS; PARTICLES; RESPIRATORY TRACT CELLS; SOLUBILITY; TOXICITY