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Title: Effects of oral exposure to naturally-occurring and synthetic deoxynivalenol congeners on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in the mouse

The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expressions. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potentmore » 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. - Highlights: • We compared effects of DON congeners on biomarker proinflammatory genes in mice. • Oral DON induced splenic IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α,CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNAs. • 8-Ketotrichothecene ranking for biomarkers was FX ≈ DON > 15ADON > 3ADON > NIV. • Plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside failed to induce proinflammatory biomarkers. • Synthetic DON congeners EN139528 and EN139544 did not affect biomarkers.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)
  2. (United States)
  3. Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)
  4. Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)
  5. Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism and Center for Analytical Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Tulln (Austria)
  6. Dept. of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)
  7. Food and Life Sciences, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa Pref., 252-5201 (Japan)
  8. Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan)
  9. Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa (Canada)
  10. Dept. of Chemistry, University of Ottawa (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 278; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States