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Title: Applicability of rat precision-cut lung slices in evaluating nanomaterial cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation

The applicability of rat precision-cut lung slices (PCLuS) in detecting nanomaterial (NM) toxicity to the respiratory tract was investigated evaluating sixteen OECD reference NMs (TiO{sub 2}, ZnO, CeO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, Ag, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)). Upon 24-hour test substance exposure, the PCLuS system was able to detect early events of NM toxicity: total protein, reduction in mitochondrial activity, caspase-3/-7 activation, glutathione depletion/increase, cytokine induction, and histopathological evaluation. Ion shedding NMS (ZnO and Ag) induced severe tissue destruction detected by the loss of total protein. Two anatase TiO{sub 2} NMs, CeO{sub 2} NMs, and two MWCNT caused significant (determined by trend analysis) cytotoxicity in the WST-1 assay. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, different TiO{sub 2} NMs and one MWCNT increased GSH levels, presumably a defense response to reactive oxygen species, and these substances further induced a variety of cytokines. One of the SiO{sub 2} NMs increased caspase-3/-7 activities at non-cytotoxic levels, and one rutile TiO{sub 2} only induced cytokines. Investigating these effects is, however, not sufficient to predict apical effects found in vivo. Reproducibility of test substance measurements was not fully satisfactory, especially in the GSH and cytokine assays. Effects were frequently observed in negative controls pointing to tissue slice vulnerability evenmore » though prepared and handled with utmost care. Comparisons of the effects observed in the PCLuS to in vivo effects reveal some concordances for the metal oxide NMs, but less so for the MWCNT. The highest effective dosages, however, exceeded those reported for rat short-term inhalation studies. To become applicable for NM testing, the PCLuS system requires test protocol optimization. - Highlights: • 16 OECD reference nanomaterials were tested in rat precision-cut lung slices. • Nanomaterial cytotoxicity, apoptose, oxidative stress, and inflammation were detected. • Investigating these early effects is not sufficient to predict in vivo outcome. • Reproducibility was not fully satisfactory in the glutathione and cytokine assays. • Further work is required to adjust effective dosages in vitro to in vivo doses.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ; ; ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ; ; ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Scientific Consultancy — Animal Welfare, Neubiberg (Germany)
  2. Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)
  3. (Germany)
  4. Product Safety, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22439685
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 276; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; APOPTOSIS; CARBON NANOTUBES; CERIUM OXIDES; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DOSES; IN VITRO; IN VIVO; INFLAMMATION; INHALATION; LUNGS; MITOCHONDRIA; OXIDATION; RATS; RUTILE; SILICON OXIDES; STRESSES; TITANIUM OXIDES; TOXICITY; ZINC OXIDES