skip to main content

Title: Supersize me: Cronobacter sakazakii phage GAP32

Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative pathogen found in milk-based formulae that causes infant meningitis. Bacteriophages have been proposed to control bacterial pathogens; however, comprehensive knowledge about a phage is required to ensure its safety before clinical application. We have characterized C. sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 (GAP32), which possesses the second largest sequenced phage genome (358,663 bp). A total of 571 genes including 545 protein coding sequences and 26 tRNAs were identified, thus more genes than in the smallest bacterium, Mycoplasma genitalium G37. BLASTP and HHpred searches, together with proteomic analyses reveal that only 23.9% of the putative proteins have defined functions. Some of the unique features of this phage include: a chromosome condensation protein, two copies of the large subunit terminase, a predicted signal-arrest-release lysin; and an RpoD-like protein, which is possibly involved in the switch from immediate early to delayed early transcription. Its closest relatives are all extremely large myoviruses, namely coliphage PBECO4 and Klebsiella phage vB{sub K}leM-RaK2, with whom it shares approximately 44% homologous proteins. Since the homologs are not evenly distributed, we propose that these three phages belong to a new subfamily. - Highlights: • Cronobacter sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 has a genome of 358,663more » bp. • It encodes 545 proteins which is more than Mycoplasma genitalium G37. • It is a member of the Myoviridae. • It is peripherally related to coliphage PBECO4 and Klebsiella phage vB{sub K}leM-RaK2. • GAP32 encodes a chromosome condensation protein.« less
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ;  [4] ;  [5] ; ;  [1] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [7]
  1. Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)
  2. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Guelph Food Research Centre, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 5C9 (Canada)
  3. Department of Microbiology-Infectiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada)
  4. Laboratory of Gene Technology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)
  5. Biomedical Research Institute and Transnational University Limburg, School of Life Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium)
  6. Public Health Agency of Canada, Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3W4 (Canada)
  7. (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Virology; Journal Volume: 460-461; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States