skip to main content

Title: Biogenesis of non-structural protein 1 (nsp1) and nsp1-mediated type I interferon modulation in arteriviruses

Type I interferons (IFNs-α/β) play a key role for the antiviral state of host, and the porcine arterivirus; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), has been shown to down-regulate the production of IFNs during infection. Non-structural protein (nsp) 1 of PRRSV has been identified as a viral IFN antagonist, and the nsp1α subunit of nsp1 has been shown to degrade the CREB-binding protein (CBP) and to inhibit the formation of enhanceosome thus resulting in the suppression of IFN production. The study was expanded to other member viruses in the family Arteriviridae: equine arteritis virus (EAV), murine lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). While PRRSV–nsp1 and LDV–nsp1 were auto-cleaved to produce the nsp1α and nsp1β subunits, EAV–nsp1 remained uncleaved. SHFV–nsp1 was initially predicted to be cleaved to generate three subunits (nsp1α, nsp1β, and nsp1γ), but only two subunits were generated as SHFV–nsp1αβ and SHFV–nsp1γ. The papain-like cysteine protease (PLP) 1α motif in nsp1α remained inactive for SHFV, and only the PLP1β motif of nsp1β was functional to generate SHFV–nsp1γ subunit. All subunits of arterivirus nsp1 were localized in the both nucleus and cytoplasm, but PRRSV–nsp1β, LDV–nsp1β, EAV–nsp1, and SHFV–nsp1γ were predominantly found in the nucleus. Allmore » subunits of arterivirus nsp1 contained the IFN suppressive activity and inhibited both interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-κB mediated IFN promoter activities. Similar to PRRSV–nsp1α, CBP degradation was evident in cells expressing LDV–nsp1α and SHFV–nsp1γ, but no such degradation was observed for EAV–nsp1. Regardless of CBP degradation, all subunits of arterivirus nsp1 suppressed the IFN-sensitive response element (ISRE)-promoter activities. Our data show that the nsp1-mediated IFN modulation is a common strategy for all arteriviruses but their mechanism of action may differ from each other. - Highlights: • LDV–nsp1 was cleaved to nsp1α and nsp1β whereas EAV–nsp1 was uncleaved. • SHFV–nsp1 was cleaved to nsp1αβ and nsp1γ. • PRRSV–nsp1β, LDV–nsp1β, EAV–nsp1, and SHFV–nsp1γ were nuclear proteins. • PRRSV–nsp1α, LDV–nsp1α, and SHFV–nsp1γ caused CBP degradation. • All nsp1 subunits contained interferon and ISRE suppressive activities.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ; ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)
  2. Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22435041
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Virology; Journal Volume: 458-459; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CELL NUCLEI; CYSTEINE; CYTOPLASM; FEVER; HOST; INTERFERON; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE; MODULATION; PAPAIN; PROMOTERS; VIRUSES