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Title: Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate perturbs the expression of genes involved in immune response and lipid and steroid metabolism in chicken embryos

We previously demonstrated that in ovo exposure to the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) decreased plasma thyroxine levels, reduced growth parameters, and decreased gallbladder size in chicken embryos. In the current study DNA microarrays were used to evaluate global mRNA expression in liver tissue of male chicken embryos that exhibited the above mentioned effects. Injected doses were dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control, 7.6 or 45 μg TDCPP/g egg. TDCPP caused significant changes in the expression of five genes at the low dose and 47 genes at the high dose (False Discovery Rate p ≤ 0.1, fold change ≥ 1.5). The gene expression analysis suggested a compromised immune function, a state of cholestatic liver/biliary fibrosis, and disrupted lipid and steroid metabolism. Circulating bile acid levels were elevated, which is an indication of liver dysfunction, and plasma cholesterol levels were reduced; however, hepatic bile acid and cholesterol levels were unaltered. Interactome analyses identified apolipoprotein E, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha as key regulatory molecules involved in the effects of TDCPP. Our results demonstrate a targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on lipid metabolism, including cholesterol, that helps explain the aforementioned phenotypic effects, as chicken embryos are highly dependent onmore » yolk lipids for growth and maintenance throughout development. Finally, our results are in concordance with the literature that describes TDCPP as a cancer-causing agent, since the majority of dysregulated genes were involved in cancer pathways. - Highlights: • TDCPP dysregulates genes involved in immune function and lipid metabolism. • A targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on cholesterol metabolism is apparent. • A state of cholestatic liver fibrosis is suggested by the expression profile. • Elevated plasma bile acids suggest that TDCPP causes liver dysfunction.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ; ; ;  [3] ; ; ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)
  2. (Canada)
  3. Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9 (Canada)
  4. National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22423793
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 275; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ANIMAL TISSUES; BILE ACIDS; BILIARY TRACT; CHICKENS; CHOLESTEROL; DMSO; DNA; EMBRYOS; FIBROSIS; GENES; LIPIDS; LIVER; MESSENGER-RNA; METABOLISM; MOLECULES; NEOPLASMS; RECEPTORS; THYROXINE; TOXICITY