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Title: Annealing dynamics of WO{sub 3} by in situ XRD

Highlights: • Flame-made WO{sub 3} nanoparticles with closely controlled crystal and grain size. • Dynamic phase transition of annealing of pure and Si-doped WO{sub 3} by in situ XRD. • Irreversible evolution of WO{sub 3} crystallinity by heating/cooling during its annealing. • Si-doping alters the WO{sub 3} crystallinity dynamics and stabilizes nanosized WO{sub 3}. • Flame-made nano-WO{sub 3} can sense NO at the ppb level. - Abstract: Tungsten trioxide is a semiconductor with distinct applications in gas sensors, catalysis, batteries and pigments. As such the transition between its different crystal structures during its annealing are of interest, especially for sensor applications. Here, WO{sub 3} nanoparticles with closely controlled crystal and grain size (9–15 nm) and phase composition are made by flame spray pyrolysis and the formation of different WO{sub 3} phases during annealing is investigated. Most notably, the dynamic phase transition and crystal size evolution of WO{sub 3} during heating and cooling is monitored by in situ X-ray diffraction revealing how metastable WO{sub 3} phases can be captured stably. The effect of Si-doping is studied since it is used in practise to control crystal growth and phase transition during metal oxide synthesis and processing. Finally the influence of annealing onmore » the WO{sub 3} sensing performance of NO, a lung inflammation tracer in the human breath, is explored at the ppb-level.« less
Authors:
;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22420621
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Research Bulletin; Journal Volume: 59; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ANNEALING; CATALYSIS; CRYSTAL GROWTH; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; CRYSTALS; DOPED MATERIALS; ELECTROCHEMISTRY; GRAIN SIZE; HEATING; NANOPARTICLES; NANOSTRUCTURES; NITRIC OXIDE; PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; SENSORS; SILICON; SYNTHESIS; TUNGSTEN OXIDES; X-RAY DIFFRACTION