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Title: Modelling the Impact of Fractionation on Late Urinary Toxicity After Postprostatectomy Radiation Therapy

Purpose: To fit urinary toxicity data of patients treated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy with the linear quadratic (LQ) model with/without introducing a time factor. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2010, 1176 patients were treated with conventional fractionation (1.8 Gy per fraction, median 70.2 Gy, n=929) or hypofractionation (2.35-2.90 Gy per fraction, n=247). Data referred to 2004-2010 (when all schemes were in use, n=563; conventional fractionation: 316; hypofractionation: 247) were fitted as a logit function of biological equivalent dose (BED), according to the LQ model with/without including a time factor γ (fixing α/β = 5 Gy). The 3-year risks of severe urethral stenosis, incontinence, and hematuria were considered as endpoints. Best-fit parameters were derived, and the resulting BEDs were taken in multivariable backward logistic models, including relevant clinical variables, considering the whole population. Results: The 3-year incidences of severe stenosis, incontinence, and hematuria were, respectively, 6.6%, 4.8%, and 3.3% in the group treated in 2004-2010. The best-fitted α/β values were 0.81 Gy and 0.74 Gy for incontinence and hematuria, respectively, with the classic LQ formula. When fixing α/β = 5 Gy, best-fit values for γ were, respectively, 0.66 Gy/d and 0.85 Gy/d. Sensitivity analyses showed reasonable values for γ (0.6-1.0 Gy/d), with comparable goodness of fit for α/β values between 3.5 and 6.5 Gy. Likelihoodmore » ratio tests showed that the fits with/without including γ were equivalent. The resulting multivariable backward logistic models in the whole population included BED, pT4, and use of antihypertensives (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.72) for incontinence and BED, pT4, and year of surgery (AUC = 0.80) for hematuria. Stenosis data could not be fitted: a 4-variable model including only clinical factors (acute urinary toxicity, pT4, year of surgery, and use of antihypertensives) was suggested (AUC = 0.73). Conclusions: The unexpected impact of moderate hypofractionation on severe incontinence and hematuria after postprostatectomy radiation therapy may be explained by a bladder α/β value <1 Gy or, radiobiologically more plausible, by introducing a time factor likely to represent a previously hypothesized consequential component of late effect.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy)
  2. Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy)
  3. Prostate Cancer Program, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy)
  4. Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22420520
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BLADDER; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DOSE EQUIVALENTS; FRACTIONATED IRRADIATION; HAZARDS; PATIENTS; RADIOTHERAPY; SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS; SURGERY; TOXICITY