skip to main content

Title: Differential Motion Between Mediastinal Lymph Nodes and Primary Tumor in Radically Irradiated Lung Cancer Patients

Purpose/Objective: In patients with locally advanced lung cancer, planning target volume margins for mediastinal lymph nodes and tumor after a correction protocol based on bony anatomy registration typically range from 1 to 1.5 cm. Detailed information about lymph node motion variability and differential motion with the primary tumor, however, is lacking from large series. In this study, lymph node and tumor position variability were analyzed in detail and correlated to the main carina to evaluate possible margin reduction. Methods and Materials: Small gold fiducial markers (0.35 × 5 mm) were placed in the mediastinal lymph nodes of 51 patients with non-small cell lung cancer during routine diagnostic esophageal or bronchial endoscopic ultrasonography. Four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily 4D cone beam (CB) CT scans were acquired before and during radical radiation therapy (66 Gy in 24 fractions). Each CBCT was registered in 3-dimensions (bony anatomy) and 4D (tumor, marker, and carina) to the planning CT scan. Subsequently, systematic and random residual misalignments of the time-averaged lymph node and tumor position relative to the bony anatomy and carina were determined. Additionally, tumor and lymph node respiratory amplitude variability was quantified. Finally, required margins were quantified by use of a recipe for dual targets. Results:more » Relative to the bony anatomy, systematic and random errors ranged from 0.16 to 0.32 cm for the markers and from 0.15 to 0.33 cm for the tumor, but despite similar ranges there was limited correlation (0.17-0.71) owing to differential motion. A large variability in lymph node amplitude between patients was observed, with an average motion of 0.56 cm in the cranial-caudal direction. Margins could be reduced by 10% (left-right), 27% (cranial-caudal), and 10% (anteroposterior) for the lymph nodes and −2%, 15%, and 7% for the tumor if an online carina registration protocol replaced a protocol based on bony anatomy registration. Conclusions: Detailed analysis revealed considerable lymph node position variability, differential motion, and respiratory motion. Planning target volume margins can be reduced up to 27% in lung cancer patients when the carina registration replaces bony anatomy registration.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [3] ;  [3]
  1. Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  2. (Netherlands)
  3. Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  4. Department of Pulmonary Disease, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22420487
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ANATOMY; CAT SCANNING; ESOPHAGUS; FIDUCIAL MARKERS; GOLD; LUNGS; LYMPH NODES; NEOPLASMS; PATIENTS; PLANNING; RADIOTHERAPY; ULTRASONOGRAPHY