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Title: Mobility of indium on the ZnO(0001) surface

The mobility of indium on the Zn-polar (0001) surface of single crystal ZnO wafers was investigated using real-time x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A sudden transition in the wettability of the ZnO(0001) surface was observed at ∼520 °C, with indium migrating from the (0001{sup ¯}) underside of the wafer, around the non-polar (11{sup ¯}00) and (112{sup ¯}0) sidewalls, to form a uniform self-organized (∼20 Å) adlayer. The In adlayer was oxidized, in agreement with the first principles calculations of Northrup and Neugebauer that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} precipitation can only be avoided under a combination of In-rich and Zn-rich conditions. These findings suggest that unintentional In adlayers may form during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on indium-bonded substrates.
Authors:
; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8043 (New Zealand)
  2. Element Six Limited, Global Innovation Centre, Didcot OX11 0QR (United Kingdom)
  3. Department of Physics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22420242
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 106; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; EPITAXY; INDIUM; INDIUM OXIDES; MONOCRYSTALS; PARTICLE MOBILITY; SUBSTRATES; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0400-1000 K; WETTABILITY; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY; ZINC OXIDES