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Title: Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on erythropoiesis: A preclinical in vitro characterization for the treatment of congenital sideroblastic anemia

Highlights: • Treatment with ALA induces erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. • Transportation of ALA into erythroid cells occurs predominantly via SLC36A1. • ALA restores defects in ALAS2 in human iPS cell-derived erythroblasts. • ALA may represent a novel therapeutic option for CSA caused by ALAS2 mutations. - Abstract: Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a hereditary disorder characterized by microcytic anemia and bone marrow sideroblasts. The most common form of CSA is attributed to mutations in the X-linked gene 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2). ALAS2 is a mitochondrial enzyme, which utilizes glycine and succinyl-CoA to form 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a crucial precursor in heme synthesis. Therefore, ALA supplementation could be an effective therapeutic strategy to restore heme synthesis in CSA caused by ALAS2 defects. In a preclinical study, we examined the effects of ALA in human erythroid cells, including K562 cells and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived erythroid progenitor (HiDEP) cells. ALA treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent accumulation of heme in the K562 cell line. Concomitantly, the treatment substantially induced erythroid differentiation as assessed using benzidine staining. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed significant upregulation of heme-regulated genes, such as the globin genes [hemoglobin alpha (HBA) andmore » hemoglobin gamma (HBG)] and the heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) gene, in K562 cells. Next, to investigate the mechanism by which ALA is transported into erythroid cells, quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed on previously identified ALA transporters, including solute carrier family 15 (oligopeptide transporter), member (SLC15A) 1, SLC15A2, solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member (SLC36A1), and solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 13 (SLC6A13). Our analysis revealed that SLC36A1 was abundantly expressed in erythroid cells. Thus, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was added to K562 cells to competitively inhibit SLC36A1-mediated transport. GABA treatment significantly impeded the ALA-mediated increase in the number of hemoglobinized cells as well as the induction of HBG, HBA, and HMOX1. Finally, small-interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ALAS2 in HiDEP cells considerably decreased the expression of HBA, HBG, and HMOX1, and these expression levels were rescued with ALA treatment. In summary, ALA appears to be transported into erythroid cells mainly by SLC36A1 and is utilized to generate heme. ALA may represent a novel therapeutic option for CSA treatment, particularly for cases harboring ALAS2 mutations.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [1] ;  [3] ; ; ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [5] ; ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan)
  2. (Japan)
  3. SBI Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
  4. Department of Hematopathology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan)
  5. Cell Engineering Division, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22416822
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications; Journal Volume: 454; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; AMINOBUTYRIC ACID; AMINOLEVULINIC ACID; ANEMIAS; BENZIDINE; BONE MARROW; BONE MARROW CELLS; CONGENITAL DISEASES; ENZYMES; ERYTHROPOIESIS; GENES; GLYCINE; HEME; HEMOGLOBIN; HUMAN POPULATIONS; MITOCHONDRIA; POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION; RNA; STEM CELLS