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Title: Conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase belonged to motif B′ methyltransferase family in Coffea arabica

Graphical abstract: Trigonelline synthase catalyzes the conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline. We isolated and characterized trigonelline synthase gene(s) from Coffea arabica. - Highlights: • Trigonelline is a major compound in coffee been same as caffeine is. • We isolated and characterized trigonelline synthase gene. • Coffee trigonelline synthases are highly homologous with coffee caffeine synthases. • This study contributes the fully understanding of pyridine alkaloid metabolism. - Abstract: Trigonelline (N-methylnicotinate), a member of the pyridine alkaloids, accumulates in coffee beans along with caffeine. The biosynthetic pathway of trigonelline is not fully elucidated. While it is quite likely that the production of trigonelline from nicotinate is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase, as is caffeine synthase (CS), the enzyme(s) and gene(s) involved in N-methylation have not yet been characterized. It should be noted that, similar to caffeine, trigonelline accumulation is initiated during the development of coffee fruits. Interestingly, the expression profiles for two genes homologous to caffeine synthases were similar to the accumulation profile of trigonelline. We presumed that these two CS-homologous genes encoded trigonelline synthases. These genes were then expressed in Escherichiacoli, and the resulting recombinant enzymes that were obtained were characterized. Consequently, using the N-methyltransferase assay with S-adenosyl[methyl-{sup 14}C]methionine, it wasmore » confirmed that these recombinant enzymes catalyzed the conversion of nicotinate to trigonelline, coffee trigonelline synthases (termed CTgS1 and CTgS2) were highly identical (over 95% identity) to each other. The sequence homology between the CTgSs and coffee CCS1 was 82%. The pH-dependent activity curve of CTgS1 and CTgS2 revealed optimum activity at pH 7.5. Nicotinate was the specific methyl acceptor for CTgSs, and no activity was detected with any other nicotinate derivatives, or with any of the typical substrates of B′-MTs. It was concluded that CTgSs have strict substrate specificity. The K{sub m} values of CTgS1 and CTgS2 were 121 and 184 μM with nicotinic acid as a substrate, and 68 and 120 μM with S-adenosyl-L-methionine as a substrate, respectively.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita City, Akita 010-0195 (Japan)
  2. Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22416777
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications; Journal Volume: 452; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ALKALOIDS; BEVERAGES; CAFFEINE; CARBON 14; COFFEE BEANS; GENES; METABOLISM; METHIONINE; METHYL TRANSFERASES; METHYLATION; NICOTINIC ACID; PH VALUE; PYRIDINE