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Title: Dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide suppresses inflammatory responses in macrophages via activation of Nrf2

Highlights: • Dh404 suppresses the expression of a selected set of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflamed macrophages via activating Nrf2. • Dh404 activates Nrf2 while keeping Keap1 function intact in macrophages. • Dh404 minimally regulates NF-κB pathway in macrophages. - Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is the major regulator of cellular defenses against various pathological stresses in a variety of organ systems, thus Nrf2 has evolved to be an attractive drug target for the treatment and/or prevention of human disease. Several synthetic oleanolic triterpenoids including dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide (dh404) appear to be potent activators of Nrf2 and exhibit chemopreventive promises in multiple disease models. While the pharmacological efficacy of Nrf2 activators may be dependent on the nature of Nrf2 activation in specific cell types of target organs, the precise role of Nrf2 in mediating biological effects of Nrf2 activating compounds in various cell types remains to be further explored. Herein we report a unique and Nrf2-dependent anti-inflammatory profile of dh404 in inflamed macrophages. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inflamed RAW264.7 macrophages, dh404 dramatically suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β), while minimally regulating the expression of interleulin-6 (IL-6),more » IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Dh404 potently activated Nrf2 signaling; however, it did not affect LPS-induced NF-κB activity. Dh404 did not interrupt the interaction of Nrf2 with its endogenous inhibitor Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1) in macrophages. Moreover, knockout of Nrf2 blocked the dh404-induced anti-inflammatory responses in LPS-inflamed macrophages. These results demonstrated that dh404 suppresses pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages via an activation of Nrf2 independently of Keap1 and NF-κB, suggesting a unique therapeutic potential of dh404 for specific targeting a Nrf2-mediated resolution of inflammation.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ; ;  [3] ; ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)
  2. (United States)
  3. Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)
  4. Department of Pharmacology, Reata Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Irving, TX 75063 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22416282
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications; Journal Volume: 444; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; AMIDES; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; DISEASES; HUMAN POPULATIONS; INFLAMMATION; LYMPHOKINES; MACROPHAGES; MONOCYTES; NITRIC OXIDE; ORGANS; RADIOPROTECTIVE SUBSTANCES; STRESSES