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Title: Performance characterization of high quantum efficiency metal package photomultiplier tubes for time-of-flight and high-resolution PET applications

Purpose: Metal package photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with a metal channel dynode structure have several advanced features for devising such time-of-flight (TOF) and high spatial resolution positron emission tomography (PET) detectors, thanks to their high packing density, large effective area ratio, fast time response, and position encoding capability. Here, we report on an investigation of new metal package PMTs with high quantum efficiency (QE) for high-resolution PET and TOF PET detector modules. Methods: The latest metal package PMT, the Hamamatsu R11265 series, is served with two kinds of photocathodes that have higher quantum efficiency than normal bialkali (typical QE ≈ 25%), super bialkali (SBA; QE ≈ 35%), and ultra bialkali (UBA; QE ≈ 43%). In this study, the authors evaluated the performance of the new PMTs with SBA and UBA photocathodes as a PET detector by coupling various crystal arrays. They also investigated the performance improvements of high QE, focusing in particular on a block detector coupled with a lutetium-based scintillator. A single 4 × 4 × 10 mm{sup 3} LYSO, a 7 × 7 array of 3 × 3 × 20 mm{sup 3} LGSO, a 9 × 9 array of 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm{sup 3} LYSO, and amore » 6 × 6 array of 1.5 × 1.5 × 7 mm{sup 3} LuYAP were used for evaluation. All coincidence data were acquired with a DRS4 based fast digitizer. Results: This new PMT shows promising crystal positioning accuracy, energy and time discrimination performance for TOF, and high-resolution PET applications. The authors also found that a metal channel PMT with SBA was enough for both TOF and high-resolution application, although UBA gave a minor improvement to time resolution. However, significant performance improvement was observed in relative low light output crystals (LuYAP) coupled with UBA. Conclusions: The results of this study will be of value as a useful reference to select PMTs for high-performance PET detectors.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)
  2. (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22413402
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; ACCURACY; CRYSTALS; LUTETIUM; PERFORMANCE; PHOTOCATHODES; POSITRON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; QUANTUM EFFICIENCY; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; TIME RESOLUTION; TIME-OF-FLIGHT METHOD