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Title: Improved open-circuit voltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells with high work function transparent electrodes

Hydrogenated indium oxide (IOH) is implemented as transparent front contact in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells, leading to an open circuit voltage V{sub OC} enhanced by ∼20 mV as compared to reference devices with ZnO:Al (AZO) electrodes. This effect is reproducible in a wide range of contact sheet resistances corresponding to various IOH thicknesses. We present the detailed electrical characterization of glass/Mo/CIGS/CdS/intrinsic ZnO (i-ZnO)/transparent conductive oxide (TCO) with different IOH/AZO ratios in the front TCO contact in order to identify possible reasons for the enhanced V{sub OC}. Temperature and illumination intensity-dependent current-voltage measurements indicate that the dominant recombination path does not change when AZO is replaced by IOH, and it is mainly limited to recombination in the space charge region and at the junction interface of the solar cell. The main finding is that the introduction of even a 5 nm-thin IOH layer at the i-ZnO/TCO interface already results in a step-like increase in V{sub OC}. Two possible explanations are proposed and verified by one-dimensional simulations using the SCAPS software. First, a higher work function of IOH as compared to AZO is simulated to yield an V{sub OC} increase by 21 mV. Second, a lower defect density in the i-ZnO layer as amore » result of the reduced sputter damage during milder sputter-deposition of IOH can also add to a maximum enhanced V{sub OC} of 25 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proper choice of the front TCO contact can reduce the parasitic recombination and boost the efficiency of CIGS cells with improved corrosion stability.« less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Empa—Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)
  2. Empa—Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Nanoscale Materials Science, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22412934
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 117; Journal Issue: 22; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; CADMIUM SULFIDES; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COPPER SELENIDES; CORROSION; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; GALLIUM SELENIDES; HYDROGENATION; ILLUMINANCE; INDIUM OXIDES; INDIUM SELENIDES; INTERFACES; LAYERS; RECOMBINATION; SEMICONDUCTOR JUNCTIONS; SOLAR CELLS; WORK FUNCTIONS; ZINC OXIDES