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Title: MCTP system model based on linear programming optimization of apertures obtained from sequencing patient image data maps

Purpose: The authors present a hybrid direct multileaf collimator (MLC) aperture optimization model exclusively based on sequencing of patient imaging data to be implemented on a Monte Carlo treatment planning system (MC-TPS) to allow the explicit radiation transport simulation of advanced radiotherapy treatments with optimal results in efficient times for clinical practice. Methods: The planning system (called CARMEN) is a full MC-TPS, controlled through aMATLAB interface, which is based on the sequencing of a novel map, called “biophysical” map, which is generated from enhanced image data of patients to achieve a set of segments actually deliverable. In order to reduce the required computation time, the conventional fluence map has been replaced by the biophysical map which is sequenced to provide direct apertures that will later be weighted by means of an optimization algorithm based on linear programming. A ray-casting algorithm throughout the patient CT assembles information about the found structures, the mass thickness crossed, as well as PET values. Data are recorded to generate a biophysical map for each gantry angle. These maps are the input files for a home-made sequencer developed to take into account the interactions of photons and electrons with the MLC. For each linac (Axesse ofmore » Elekta and Primus of Siemens) and energy beam studied (6, 9, 12, 15 MeV and 6 MV), phase space files were simulated with the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc code. The dose calculation in patient was carried out with the BEAMDOSE code. This code is a modified version of EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc able to calculate the beamlet dose in order to combine them with different weights during the optimization process. Results: Three complex radiotherapy treatments were selected to check the reliability of CARMEN in situations where the MC calculation can offer an added value: A head-and-neck case (Case I) with three targets delineated on PET/CT images and a demanding dose-escalation; a partial breast irradiation case (Case II) solved with photon and electron modulated beams (IMRT + MERT); and a prostatic bed case (Case III) with a pronounced concave-shaped PTV by using volumetric modulated arc therapy. In the three cases, the required target prescription doses and constraints on organs at risk were fulfilled in a short enough time to allow routine clinical implementation. The quality assurance protocol followed to check CARMEN system showed a high agreement with the experimental measurements. Conclusions: A Monte Carlo treatment planning model exclusively based on maps performed from patient imaging data has been presented. The sequencing of these maps allows obtaining deliverable apertures which are weighted for modulation under a linear programming formulation. The model is able to solve complex radiotherapy treatments with high accuracy in an efficient computation time.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ; ; ;  [3] ;  [4] ; ;  [5]
  1. Dpto. Fisiología Médica y Biofísica. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41009 Sevilla (Spain)
  2. Nederlands Kanker Instituut, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Ziekenhuis, 1066 CX Ámsterdam, The Nederlands (Netherlands)
  3. Dpto. Fisiología Médica y Biofísica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41009 Sevilla (Spain)
  4. Servicio de Radiofísica, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, E-41009 Sevilla (Spain)
  5. Servicio de Radiofísica, Hospital Infanta Luisa, E-41010 Sevilla (Spain)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22409574
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: (c) 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ALGORITHMS; APERTURES; CAT SCANNING; DATA; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; LINEAR PROGRAMMING; MAMMARY GLANDS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; OPTIMIZATION; PATIENTS; PHASE SPACE; PLANNING; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY