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Title: Red emission phosphor for real-time skin dosimeter for fluoroscopy and interventional radiology

Purpose: There are no effective real-time direct skin dosimeters for interventional radiology. Such a scintillation dosimeter would be available if there was a suitable red emission phosphor in the medical x-ray range, since the silicon photodiode is a highly efficient device for red light. However, it is unknown whether there is a suitable red emission phosphor. The purpose of this study is to find a suitable red emission phosphor that can be used in x-ray dosimeters. Methods: Five kinds of phosphors which emit red light when irradiated with electron beams or ultraviolet rays in practical devices were chosen. For the brightness measurement, phosphor was put into transparent plastic cells or coated onto plastic sheets. The phosphors were irradiated with medical range x-rays [60–120 kV(peak), maximum dose rate of 160 mGy min{sup −1}], and the emission was measured by a luminance meter. Several characteristics, such as brightness, dose rate dependence, tube voltage dependence, and brightness stability, were investigated. Results: The luminescence of Y V O{sub 4}:Eu, (Y,Gd,Eu) BO{sub 3}, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu significantly deteriorated by 5%–10% when irradiated with continuous 2 Gy x-rays. The 0.5MgF{sub 2}⋅3.5MgO⋅GeO{sub 2}:Mn phosphor did not emit enough. Only the Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu,Sm phosphor had hardlymore » any brightness deterioration, and it had a linear relationship so that the x-ray dose rate could be determined from the brightness with sufficient accuracy. For the tube voltage dependence of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu,Sm phosphor, the brightness per unit dose rate with 120 kV(peak) x-rays was 30% higher than that with 60 kV(peak) x-rays. Conclusions: Five kinds of phosphors were chosen as an x-ray scintillator for a real-time direct skin dosimeter. The Y V O{sub 4}:Eu, (Y,Gd,Eu)BO{sub 3}, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu phosphors had brightness deterioration caused by the x-rays. Only the Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu,Sm phosphor had hardly any brightness deterioration, and it is a candidate for an x-ray scintillator for such a skin dosimeter.« less
Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Radiological Technology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Tohoku University, 2-1 Seiryou-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22409488
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: (c) 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BRIGHTNESS; DOSE RATES; DOSEMETERS; ELECTRON BEAMS; FLUOROSCOPY; IRRADIATION; LUMINESCENCE; PHOSPHORS; SCINTILLATIONS; SKIN; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; VISIBLE RADIATION; X RADIATION; YTTRIUM OXIDES