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Title: Theory of runaway electrons in ITER: Equations, important parameters, and implications for mitigation

The plasma current in ITER cannot be allowed to transfer from thermal to relativistic electron carriers. The potential for damage is too great. Before the final design is chosen for the mitigation system to prevent such a transfer, it is important that the parameters that control the physics be understood. Equations that determine these parameters and their characteristic values are derived. The mitigation benefits of the injection of impurities with the highest possible atomic number Z and the slowing plasma cooling during halo current mitigation to ≳40 ms in ITER are discussed. The highest possible Z increases the poloidal flux consumption required for each e-fold in the number of relativistic electrons and reduces the number of high energy seed electrons from which exponentiation builds. Slow cooling of the plasma during halo current mitigation also reduces the electron seed. Existing experiments could test physics elements required for mitigation but cannot carry out an integrated demonstration. ITER itself cannot carry out an integrated demonstration without excessive danger of damage unless the probability of successful mitigation is extremely high. The probability of success depends on the reliability of the theory. Equations required for a reliable Monte Carlo simulation are derived.
Authors:
 [1]
  1. Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22408205
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physics of Plasmas; Journal Volume: 22; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; ATOMIC NUMBER; CARRIERS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COOLING; DAMAGE; ELECTRIC CURRENTS; ITER TOKAMAK; MITIGATION; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PLASMA; PLASMA IMPURITIES; PROBABILITY; RELATIVISTIC RANGE; RUNAWAY ELECTRONS