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Title: Microstructure of selective laser melted nickel–titanium

In selective laser melting, the layer-wise local melting of metallic powder by means of a scanning focused laser beam leads to anisotropic microstructures, which reflect the pathway of the laser beam. We studied the impact of laser power, scanning speed, and laser path onto the microstructure of NiTi cylinders. Here, we varied the laser power from 56 to 100 W and the scanning speed from about 100 to 300 mm/s. In increasing the laser power, the grain width and length increased from (33 ± 7) to (90 ± 15) μm and from (60 ± 20) to (600 ± 200) μm, respectively. Also, the grain size distribution changed from uni- to bimodal. Ostwald-ripening of the crystallites explains the distinct bimodal size distributions. Decreasing the scanning speed did not alter the microstructure but led to increased phase transformation temperatures of up to 40 K. This was experimentally determined using differential scanning calorimetry and explained as a result of preferential nickel evaporation during the fabrication process. During selective laser melting of the NiTi shape memory alloy, the control of scanning speed allows restricted changes of the transformation temperatures, whereas controlling the laser power and scanning path enables us to tailor the microstructure, i.e.more » the crystallite shapes and arrangement, the extent of the preferred crystallographic orientation and the grain size distribution. - Highlights: • Higher laser powers during selective laser melting of NiTi lead to larger grains. • Selective laser melting of NiTi gives rise to preferred <111> orientation. • The observed Ni/Ti ratio depends on the exposure time. • Ostwald ripening explains the bimodal grain size distribution.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [4]
  1. Biomaterials Science Center, University of Basel, c/o University Hospital Basel, 4031 Basel (Switzerland)
  2. (Switzerland)
  3. ETH Zürich, Department of Materials, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)
  4. Institute for Medical and Analytical Technologies, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Gründenstrasse 40, 4132 Muttenz (Switzerland)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22403531
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Characterization; Journal Volume: 94; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; ELECTRON DIFFRACTION; EVAPORATION; GRAIN SIZE; LASER RADIATION; MELTING; NICKEL; NICKEL ALLOYS; POWDERS; SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; TITANIUM; TITANIUM ALLOYS