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Title: Local formation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond by swift heavy ions

We exposed nitrogen-implanted diamonds to beams of swift heavy ions (∼1 GeV, ∼4 MeV/u) and find that these irradiations lead directly to the formation of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers, without thermal annealing. We compare the photoluminescence intensities of swift heavy ion activated NV{sup −} centers to those formed by irradiation with low-energy electrons and by thermal annealing. NV{sup −} yields from irradiations with swift heavy ions are 0.1 of yields from low energy electrons and 0.02 of yields from thermal annealing. We discuss possible mechanisms of NV center formation by swift heavy ions such as electronic excitations and thermal spikes. While forming NV centers with low efficiency, swift heavy ions could enable the formation of three dimensional NV{sup −} assemblies over relatively large distances of tens of micrometers. Further, our results show that NV center formation is a local probe of (partial) lattice damage relaxation induced by electronic excitations from swift heavy ions in diamond.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [3] ; ; ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [2] ;  [5] ;  [1]
  1. Accelerator Technology and Applied Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
  2. (Germany)
  3. The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
  4. GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion research, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)
  5. Ilmenau University of Technology, Department of Microelectronics and Nanoelectric Systems, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22402731
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 21; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ANNEALING; DIAMONDS; EFFICIENCY; ELECTRONS; EXCITATION; GEV RANGE 01-10; HEAVY IONS; IRRADIATION; MEV RANGE 01-10; NITROGEN; PHOTOLUMINESCENCE; PROBES; RELAXATION; THERMAL SPIKES; VACANCIES; YIELDS