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Title: The phosphorylation status and cytoskeletal remodeling of striatal astrocytes treated with quinolinic acid

Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a glutamate agonist which markedly enhances the vulnerability of neural cells to excitotoxicity. QUIN is produced from the amino acid tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway (KP). Dysregulation of this pathway is associated with neurodegenerative conditions. In this study we treated striatal astrocytes in culture with QUIN and assayed the endogenous phosphorylating system associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin as well as cytoskeletal remodeling. After 24 h incubation with 100 µM QUIN, cells were exposed to {sup 32}P-orthophosphate and/or protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase dependent of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin II (PKCaMII) or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, H89 (20 μM), KN93 (10 μM) and staurosporin (10 nM), respectively. Results showed that hyperphosphorylation was abrogated by PKA and PKC inhibitors but not by the PKCaMII inhibitor. The specific antagonists to ionotropic NMDA and non-NMDA (50 µM DL-AP5 and CNQX, respectively) glutamate receptors as well as to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGLUR; 50 µM MCPG), mGLUR1 (100 µM MPEP) and mGLUR5 (10 µM 4C3HPG) prevented the hyperphosphorylation provoked by QUIN. Also, intra and extracellular Ca{sup 2+} quelators (1 mM EGTA; 10 µM BAPTA-AM, respectively) prevented QUIN-mediated effect, while Ca{sup 2+} influx through voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channel typemore » L (L-VDCC) (blocker: 10 µM verapamil) is not implicated in this effect. Morphological analysis showed dramatically altered actin cytoskeleton with concomitant change of morphology to fusiform and/or flattened cells with retracted cytoplasm and disruption of the GFAP meshwork, supporting misregulation of actin cytoskeleton. Both hyperphosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodeling were reversed 24 h after QUIN removal. Astrocytes are highly plastic cells and the vulnerability of astrocyte cytoskeleton may have important implications for understanding the neurotoxicity of QUIN in neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: • Quinolinic acid (QUIN) induces hypersphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins in striatal astrocytes. • Glutamate, Ca{sup 2+}, PKA and PKC are implicated in the aberrantly phosphorylated GFAP and vimentin. • QUIN induces reorganization of actin and GFAP cytoskeleton. • Hyperphosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodeling are reversed after QUIN removal. • Disruption of cytoskeleton is a cytotoxic action of QUIN in striatal astrocytes.« less
Authors:
; ; ;  [1] ; ; ; ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003 (Brazil)
  2. Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22395880
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Experimental Cell Research; Journal Volume: 322; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ACTIN; CALCIUM IONS; CALMODULIN; CYTOPLASM; EGTA; INCUBATION; KYNURENINE; MICROTUBULES; MORPHOLOGY; PHOSPHATES; PHOSPHORUS 32; PHOSPHORYLATION; RECEPTORS; TRYPTOPHAN