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Title: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is localized to subnuclear domains enriched in splicing factors

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the mutator enzyme in adaptive immunity. AID initiates the antibody diversification processes in activated B cells by deaminating cytosine to uracil in immunoglobulin genes. To some extent other genes are also targeted, which may lead to genome instability and B cell malignancy. Thus, it is crucial to understand its targeting and regulation mechanisms. AID is regulated at several levels including subcellular compartmentalization. However, the complex nuclear distribution and trafficking of AID has not been studied in detail previously. In this work, we examined the subnuclear localization of AID and its interaction partner CTNNBL1 and found that they associate with spliceosome-associated structures including Cajal bodies and nuclear speckles. Moreover, protein kinase A (PKA), which activates AID by phosphorylation at Ser38, is present together with AID in nuclear speckles. Importantly, we demonstrate that AID physically associates with the major spliceosome subunits (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, snRNPs), as well as other essential splicing components, in addition to the transcription machinery. Based on our findings and the literature, we suggest a transcription-coupled splicing-associated model for AID targeting and activation. - Highlights: • AID and its interaction partner CTNNBL1 localize to Cajal bodies and nuclear speckles. • AID associates with itsmore » activating kinase PKA in nuclear speckles. • AID is linked to the splicing machinery in switching B-cells. • Our findings suggest a transcription-coupled splicing associated mechanism for AID targeting and activation.« less
Authors:
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22395877
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Experimental Cell Research; Journal Volume: 322; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ANTIBODIES; ARGININE; CYTIDINE; CYTOSINE; DIVERSIFICATION; ENZYMES; GENES; IMMUNITY; IMMUNOGLOBULINS; INSTABILITY; NEOPLASMS; NERVE CELLS; SERINE; SPLICING; SWITCHES; TRANSCRIPTION; URACILS