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Title: Relation between the electroforming voltage in alkali halide-polymer diodes and the bandgap of the alkali halide

Electroforming of indium-tin-oxide/alkali halide/poly(spirofluorene)/Ba/Al diodes has been investigated by bias dependent reflectivity measurements. The threshold voltages for electrocoloration and electroforming are independent of layer thickness and correlate with the bandgap of the alkali halide. We argue that the origin is voltage induced defect formation. Frenkel defect pairs are formed by electron–hole recombination in the alkali halide. This self-accelerating process mitigates injection barriers. The dynamic junction formation is compared to that of a light emitting electrochemical cell. A critical defect density for electroforming is 10{sup 25}/m{sup 3}. The electroformed alkali halide layer can be considered as a highly doped semiconductor with metallic transport characteristics.
Authors:
; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Molecular Materials and Nanosystems and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
  2. Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco, Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal and Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)
  3. Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany and King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22395503
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 105; Journal Issue: 23; Other Information: (c) 2014 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DOPED MATERIALS; ELECTRIC CONTACTS; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS; ELECTRODEPOSITION; ELECTRONS; FRENKEL DEFECTS; HOLES; INDIUM COMPOUNDS; LAYERS; POLYMERS; RECOMBINATION; REFLECTIVITY; SEMICONDUCTOR JUNCTIONS; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; TIN OXIDES; VISIBLE RADIATION