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Title: Proposed linear energy transfer areal detector for protons using radiochromic film

Radiation therapy depends on predictably and reliably delivering dose to tumors and sparing normal tissues. Protons with kinetic energy of a few hundred MeV can selectively deposit dose to deep seated tumors without an exit dose, unlike x-rays. The better dose distribution is attributed to a phenomenon known as the Bragg peak. The Bragg peak is due to relatively high energy deposition within a given distance or high Linear Energy Transfer (LET). In addition, biological response to radiation depends on the dose, dose rate, and localized energy deposition patterns or LET. At present, the LET can only be measured at a given fixed point and the LET spatial distribution can only be inferred from calculations. The goal of this study is to develop and test a method to measure LET over extended areas. Traditionally, radiochromic films are used to measure dose distribution but not for LET distribution. We report the first use of these films for measuring the spatial distribution of the LET deposited by protons. The radiochromic film sensitivity diminishes for large LET. A mathematical model correlating the film sensitivity and LET is presented to justify relating LET and radiochromic film relative sensitivity. Protons were directed parallel to radiochromicmore » film sandwiched between solid water slabs. This study proposes the scaled-normalized difference (SND) between the Treatment Planning system (TPS) and measured dose as the metric describing the LET. The SND is correlated with a Monte Carlo (MC) calculation of the LET spatial distribution for a large range of SNDs. A polynomial fit between the SND and MC LET is generated for protons having a single range of 20 cm with narrow Bragg peak. Coefficients from these fitted polynomial fits were applied to measured proton dose distributions with a variety of ranges. An identical procedure was applied to the protons deposited from Spread Out Bragg Peak and modulated by 5 cm. Gamma analysis is a method for comparing the calculated LET with the LET measured using radiochromic film at the pixel level over extended areas. Failure rates using gamma analysis are calculated for areas in the dose distribution using parameters of 25% of MC LET and 3 mm. The processed dose distributions find 5%–10% failure rates for the narrow 12.5 and 15 cm proton ranges and 10%–15% for proton ranges of 15, 17.5, and 20 cm and modulated by 5 cm. It is found through gamma analysis that the measured proton energy deposition in radiochromic film and TPS can be used to determine LET. This modified film dosimetry provides an experimental areal LET measurement that can verify MC calculations, support LET point measurements, possibly enhance biologically based proton treatment planning, and determine the polymerization process within the radiochromic film.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ; ; ; ;  [2]
  1. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland 20817 (United States)
  2. Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22392464
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 86; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BRAGG CURVE; ENERGY ABSORPTION; ENERGY LOSSES; FILMS; LET; NEOPLASMS; PROTONS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION