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Title: A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids

This article describes the use of evaporation control lids that are fitted to crystallization plates to improve the reproducibility of trials using as little as 5 nl. The plate lids contain apertures which are large enough for the transfer of protein containing droplets, but small enough to greatly reduce the rate of evaporation during the time needed to prepare the plate. A method is described for using plate lids to reduce evaporation in low-volume vapor-diffusion crystallization experiments. The plate lids contain apertures through which the protein and precipitants were added to different crystallization microplates (the reservoir was filled before fitting the lids). Plate lids were designed for each of these commonly used crystallization microplates. This system minimizes the dehydration of crystallization droplets containing just a few nanolitres of protein and precipitant, and results in more reproducible diffraction from the crystals. For each lid design, changes in the weight of the plates were used to deduce the rate of evaporation under different conditions of temperature, air movement, droplet size and precipitant. For comparison, the state of dehydration was also visually assessed throughout the experiment. Finally, X-ray diffraction methods were used to compare the diffraction of protein crystals that were conventionally preparedmore » against those that were prepared on plates with plate lids. The measurements revealed that the plate lids reduced the rate of evaporation by 63–82%. Crystals grown in 5 nl drops that were set up with plate lids diffracted to higher resolution than similar crystals from drops that were set up without plate lids. The results demonstrate that plate lids can be instrumental for improving few-nanolitre crystallizations.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. (Canada)
  4. (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22375709
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Acta crystallographica. Section F, Structural biology communications; Journal Volume: 70; Journal Issue: Pt 12; Other Information: PMCID: PMC4259245; PMID: 25484231; PUBLISHER-ID: nj5207; PUBLISHER-ID: S2053230X14025126; OAI: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:4259245; Copyright (c) Zipper et al. 2014; This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source are cited.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; AIR; APERTURES; CRYSTALLIZATION; CRYSTALS; DEHYDRATION; DESIGN; DIFFUSION; DROPLETS; EVAPORATION; LIQUIDS; PLATES; RESOLUTION; WEIGHT; X-RAY DIFFRACTION