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Title: Thermonuclear supernovae: probing magnetic fields by positrons and late-time IR line profiles

We show the importance of γ and positron transport for the formation of late-time spectra in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The goal is to study the imprint of magnetic fields (B) on late-time IR line profiles, particularly the [Fe II] feature at 1.644 μm, which becomes prominent two to three months after the explosion. As a benchmark, we use the explosion of a Chandrasekhar mass (M {sub Ch}) white dwarf (WD) and, specifically, a delayed detonation model that can reproduce the light curves and spectra for a Branch-normal SN Ia. We assume WDs with initial magnetic surface fields between 1 and 10{sup 9} G. We discuss large-scale dipole and small-scale magnetic fields. We show that positron transport effects must be taken into account for the interpretation of emission features starting at about one to two years after maximum light, depending on the size of B. The [Fe II] line profile and its evolution with time can be understood in terms of the overall energy input by radioactive decay and the transition from a γ-ray to a positron-dominated regime. We find that the [Fe II] line at 1.644 μm can be used to analyze the overall chemical and density structuremore » of the exploding WD up to day 200 without considering B. At later times, positron transport and magnetic field effects become important. After about day 300, the line profile allows one to probe the size of the B-field. The profile becomes sensitive to the morphology of B at about day 500. In the presence of a large-scale dipole field, a broad line is produced in M {sub Ch} mass explosions that may appear flat-topped or rounded depending on the inclination at which the SN is observed. Small or no directional dependence of the spectra is found for small-scale B. We note that narrow-line profiles require central {sup 56}Ni as shown in our previous studies. Persistent broad-line, flat-topped profiles require high-density burning, which is the signature of a WD close to M {sub Ch}. Good time coverage is required to separate the effects of optical depth, the size and morphology of B, and the aspect angle of the observer. The spectra require a resolution of about 500 km s{sup –1} and a signal-to-noise ratio of about 20%. Two other strong near-IR spectral features at about 1.5 and 1.8 μm are used to demonstrate the importance of line blending, which may invalidate a kinematic interpretation of emission lines. Flat-topped line profiles between 300 and 400 days have been observed and reported in the literature. They lend support for M {sub Ch} mass explosions in at least some cases and require magnetic fields equal to or in excess of 10{sup 6} G. We briefly discuss the effects of the size and morphology of B on light curves, as well as limitations. We argue that line profiles are a more direct measurement of B than light curves because they measure both the distribution of {sup 56}Ni and the redistribution of the energy input by positrons rather than the total energy input. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms for the formation of high B-fields and the limitations of our analysis.« less
Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32305 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22370271
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 795; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABUNDANCE; BENCHMARKS; DENSITY; DIPOLES; DISTRIBUTION; EMISSION; GAMMA RADIATION; INCLINATION; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MAGNETIC SURFACES; MASS; NICKEL 56; NUCLEAR DECAY; NUCLEOSYNTHESIS; SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO; SPECTRA; STAR EVOLUTION; TYPE I SUPERNOVAE; VISIBLE RADIATION; WHITE DWARF STARS