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Title: Planet hunters. VII. Discovery of a new low-mass, low-density planet (PH3 C) orbiting Kepler-289 with mass measurements of two additional planets (PH3 B and D)

We report the discovery of one newly confirmed planet (P = 66.06 days, R {sub P} = 2.68 ± 0.17 R {sub ⊕}) and mass determinations of two previously validated Kepler planets, Kepler-289 b (P = 34.55 days, R {sub P} = 2.15 ± 0.10 R {sub ⊕}) and Kepler-289-c (P = 125.85 days, R {sub P} = 11.59 ± 0.10 R {sub ⊕}), through their transit timing variations (TTVs). We also exclude the possibility that these three planets reside in a 1:2:4 Laplace resonance. The outer planet has very deep (∼1.3%), high signal-to-noise transits, which puts extremely tight constraints on its host star's stellar properties via Kepler's Third Law. The star PH3 is a young (∼1 Gyr as determined by isochrones and gyrochronology), Sun-like star with M {sub *} = 1.08 ± 0.02 M {sub ☉}, R {sub *} = 1.00 ± 0.02 R {sub ☉}, and T {sub eff} = 5990 ± 38 K. The middle planet's large TTV amplitude (∼5 hr) resulted either in non-detections or inaccurate detections in previous searches. A strong chopping signal, a shorter period sinusoid in the TTVs, allows us to break the mass-eccentricity degeneracy and uniquely determine the masses of the inner,more » middle, and outer planets to be M = 7.3 ± 6.8 M {sub ⊕}, 4.0 ± 0.9M {sub ⊕}, and M = 132 ± 17 M {sub ⊕}, which we designate PH3 b, c, and d, respectively. Furthermore, the middle planet, PH3 c, has a relatively low density, ρ = 1.2 ± 0.3 g cm{sup –3} for a planet of its mass, requiring a substantial H/He atmosphere of 2.1{sub −0.3}{sup +0.8}% by mass, and joins a growing population of low-mass, low-density planets.« less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ; ; ; ; ;  [7] ; ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] more »; « less
  1. Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)
  2. Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)
  3. Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
  4. Department of Astronomy and Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MC249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  5. Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)
  6. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  7. Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)
  8. Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)
  9. Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)
  10. Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica: 11F Astronomy-Mathematics Building, National Taiwan University. No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22370021
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 795; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; AMPLITUDES; ATMOSPHERES; DENSITY; DETECTION; MASS; NOISE; PLANETS; RESONANCE; SATELLITES; SUN; VARIATIONS