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Title: Kepler-424 b: A 'lonely' hot Jupiter that found A companion

Hot Jupiter systems provide unique observational constraints for migration models in multiple systems and binaries. We report on the discovery of the Kepler-424 (KOI-214) two-planet system, which consists of a transiting hot Jupiter (Kepler-424b) in a 3.31 day orbit accompanied by a more massive outer companion in an eccentric (e = 0.3) 223 day orbit. The outer giant planet, Kepler-424c, is not detected transiting the host star. The masses of both planets and the orbital parameters for the second planet were determined using precise radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and its High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS). In stark contrast to smaller planets, hot Jupiters are predominantly found to be lacking any nearby additional planets; they appear to be {sup l}onely{sup .} This might be a consequence of these systems having a highly dynamical past. The Kepler-424 planetary system has a hot Jupiter in a multiple system, similar to υ Andromedae. We also present our results for Kepler-422 (KOI-22), Kepler-77 (KOI-127), Kepler-43 (KOI-135), and Kepler-423 (KOI-183). These results are based on spectroscopic data collected with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), the Keck 1 telescope, and HET. For all systems, we rule out false positives based on various follow-upmore » observations, confirming the planetary nature of these companions. We performed a comparison with planetary evolutionary models which indicate that these five hot Jupiters have heavy element contents between 20 and 120 M {sub ⊕}.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ; ; ; ; ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ; ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10]
  1. McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
  2. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)
  3. Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
  4. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  5. Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
  6. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, Pennsylvania State University (United States)
  7. McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
  8. Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)
  9. Department of Astronomy, Yale University (United States)
  10. NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22370018
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 795; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; MASS; MIGRATION; ORBITS; PLANETS; RADIAL VELOCITY; RESOLUTION; STARS; TELESCOPES