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Title: Kepler-93b: A terrestrial world measured to within 120 km, and a test case for a new Spitzer observing mode

We present the characterization of the Kepler-93 exoplanetary system, based on three years of photometry gathered by the Kepler spacecraft. The duration and cadence of the Kepler observations, in tandem with the brightness of the star, enable unusually precise constraints on both the planet and its host. We conduct an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry and conclude that the star has an average density of 1.652 ± 0.006 g cm{sup –3}. Its mass of 0.911 ± 0.033 M{sub ☉} renders it one of the lowest-mass subjects of asteroseismic study. An analysis of the transit signature produced by the planet Kepler-93b, which appears with a period of 4.72673978 ± 9.7 × 10{sup –7} days, returns a consistent but less precise measurement of the stellar density, 1.72{sub −0.28}{sup +0.02} g cm{sup –3}. The agreement of these two values lends credence to the planetary interpretation of the transit signal. The achromatic transit depth, as compared between Kepler and the Spitzer Space Telescope, supports the same conclusion. We observed seven transits of Kepler-93b with Spitzer, three of which we conducted in a new observing mode. The pointing strategy we employed to gather this subset of observations halved our uncertainty on the transit radiusmore » ratio R{sub P} /R{sub *}. We find, after folding together the stellar radius measurement of 0.919 ± 0.011 R{sub ☉} with the transit depth, a best-fit value for the planetary radius of 1.481 ± 0.019 R{sub ⊕}. The uncertainty of 120 km on our measurement of the planet's size currently renders it one of the most precisely measured planetary radii outside of the solar system. Together with the radius, the planetary mass of 3.8 ± 1.5 M{sub ⊕} corresponds to a rocky density of 6.3 ± 2.6 g cm{sup –3}. After applying a prior on the plausible maximum densities of similarly sized worlds between 1 and 1.5 R{sub ⊕}, we find that Kepler-93b possesses an average density within this group.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ; ; ; ; ;  [2] ; ; ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ; ; ; ;  [6] ;  [7] ; ;  [8] ;  [9] more »; « less
  1. University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)
  2. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)
  3. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  4. Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309 (United States)
  5. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  6. Stellar Astrophysics Centre (SAC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)
  7. Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)
  8. Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney 2006 (Australia)
  9. Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22365616
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 790; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; BRIGHTNESS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DENSITY; ECLIPSE; GLOBAL ASPECTS; LIMITING VALUES; MASS; PHOTOMETRY; SOLAR SYSTEM; SPACE VEHICLES; STARS; TELESCOPES