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Title: The cosmic-ray ground-level enhancement of 1989 September 29

The ground-level enhancement (GLE) of 1989 September 29 is one of the largest of 71 solar energetic particle events observed by neutron monitors on Earth. It was smaller than the record-breaking GLE 5 of 1956 February 23, but by some measures it was larger than GLE 69 of 2005 January 20. It is also the most extensively studied of the 71 GLEs, and it was observed by more than 50 ground-based detectors in the worldwide network. This paper contains another study of the event, with the main difference from previous studies that all the existing observations are employed, instead of the usual selection of stations. An effort is made to represent all the information graphically. This reveals new insight in the event, mainly about its time profile. The main conclusion is that the event is the best example available of a 'classical' GLE that has a gradual increase toward peak intensity and does not contain two or more distinct peaks as inferred previously. It does, however, suggest that there were two acceleration or release mechanisms: a prompt, rapid one and a delayed, slower one. This conclusion is based on a detailed comparison with GLE 69 of 2005 January 20, whichmore » is the best-known example of a double-peaked event with a 'prompt' component. It is also found that the rigidity spectrum was probably softer than derived in several previous studies, and that the decay phase of the event reveals that the cosmic-ray diffusion coefficient in the neutron monitor range is proportional to rigidity.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. Centre for Space Research, School for Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)
  2. Ciencias Espaciales, Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22365444
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 790; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCELERATION; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COSMIC RADIATION; DECAY; DIFFUSION; EMISSION; GROUND LEVEL; HELIOSPHERE; MASS; NEUTRON MONITORS; SPECTRA; SUN