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Title: Large eccentricity, low mutual inclination: the three-dimensional architecture of a hierarchical system of giant planets

We establish the three-dimensional architecture of the Kepler-419 (previously KOI-1474) system to be eccentric yet with a low mutual inclination. Kepler-419b is a warm Jupiter at semi-major axis a=0.370{sub −0.006}{sup +0.007} AU with a large eccentricity (e = 0.85{sub −0.07}{sup +0.08}) measured via the 'photoeccentric effect'. It exhibits transit timing variations (TTVs) induced by the non-transiting Kepler-419c, which we uniquely constrain to be a moderately eccentric (e = 0.184 ± 0.002), hierarchically separated (a = 1.68 ± 0.03 AU) giant planet (7.3 ± 0.4 M {sub Jup}). We combine 16 quarters of Kepler photometry, radial-velocity (RV) measurements from the HIgh Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on Keck, and improved stellar parameters that we derive from spectroscopy and asteroseismology. From the RVs, we measure the mass of the inner planet to be 2.5 ± 0.3 M {sub Jup} and confirm its photometrically measured eccentricity, refining the value to e = 0.83 ± 0.01. The RV acceleration is consistent with the properties of the outer planet derived from TTVs. We find that despite their sizable eccentricities, the planets are coplanar to within 9{sub −6}{sup +8} degrees, and therefore the inner planet's large eccentricity and close-in orbit are unlikely to be the result of Kozaimore » migration. Moreover, even over many secular cycles, the inner planet's periapse is most likely never small enough for tidal circularization. Finally, we present and measure a transit time and impact parameter from four simultaneous ground-based light curves from 1 m class telescopes, demonstrating the feasibility of ground-based follow-up of Kepler giant planets exhibiting large TTVs.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ; ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ; ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [11]
  1. Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, Berkeley CA 94720-3411 (United States)
  2. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Institute for Theory and Computation, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  3. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 95064 (United States)
  4. Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)
  5. Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)
  6. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)
  7. Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States)
  8. Department of Physics, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States)
  9. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)
  10. Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  11. Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22365319
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 791; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCELERATION; IMPACT PARAMETER; INCLINATION; MASS; MIGRATION; ORBITS; PHOTOMETRY; RADIAL VELOCITY; RESOLUTION; SPECTROMETERS; SPECTROSCOPY; TELESCOPES; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; VISIBLE RADIATION