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Title: Accretion and evolution of ∼2.5 M {sub ⊕} planets with voluminous H/He envelopes

Formation of planets in the Neptune size range with low-mass, but voluminous, H{sub 2}/He gaseous envelopes is modeled by detailed numerical simulations according to the core-nucleated accretion scenario. Formation locations ranging from 0.5 to 4 AU from a star of 1 M {sub ☉} are considered. The final planets have heavy-element cores of 2.2-2.5 M {sub ⊕} and envelopes in the range 0.037-0.16 M {sub ⊕}. After the formation process, which lasts 2 Myr or less, the planets evolve at constant mass up to an age of several Gyr. For assumed equilibrium temperatures of 250, 500, and 1000 K, their calculated final radii are compared with those observed by the Kepler spacecraft. For the particular case of Kepler-11 f, we address the question whether it could have formed in situ or whether migration from a formation location farther out in the disk is required.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
  2. Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22365312
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 791; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCRETION DISKS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; EQUILIBRIUM; EVOLUTION; HYDROGEN; MASS; SATELLITES; SPACE VEHICLES; STARS