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Title: Heating the intergalactic medium by X-rays from population III binaries in high-redshift galaxies

Due to their long mean free path, X-rays are expected to have an important impact on cosmic reionization by heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) on large scales, especially after simulations have suggested that Population III (Pop III) stars may form in pairs at redshifts as high as 20-30. We use the Pop III distribution and evolution from a self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of the first galaxies and a simple Pop III X-ray binary model to estimate their X-ray output in a high-density region larger than 100 comoving (Mpc){sup 3}. We then combine three different methods—ray tracing, a one-zone model, and X-ray background modeling—to investigate the X-ray propagation, intensity distribution, and long-term effects on the IGM thermal and ionization state. The efficiency and morphology of photoheating and photoionization are dependent on the photon energies. The sub-kiloelectronvolt X-rays only impact the IGM near the sources, while the kiloelectronvolt photons contribute significantly to the X-ray background and heat and ionize the IGM smoothly. The X-rays just below 1 keV are most efficient in heating and ionizing the IGM. We find that the IGM might be heated to over 100 K by z = 10 and the high-densitymore » source region might reach 10{sup 4} K, limited by atomic hydrogen cooling. This may be important for predicting the 21 cm neutral hydrogen signals. On the other hand, the free electrons from X-ray ionizations are not enough to contribute significantly to the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background to the Thomson scattering.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4]
  1. Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)
  2. Department of Earth Science Education, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)
  3. Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)
  4. Lyman Briggs College and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22365307
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 791; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; BINARY STARS; COSMOLOGY; DENSITY; DISTRIBUTION; HYDRODYNAMICS; HYDROGEN; INTERGALACTIC SPACE; MEAN FREE PATH; PHOTOIONIZATION; RADIANT HEAT TRANSFER; RED SHIFT; RELICT RADIATION; SIMULATION; STARS; THOMSON SCATTERING; X RADIATION; X-RAY GALAXIES