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Title: RECOVERY OF THE CANDIDATE PROTOPLANET HD 100546 b WITH GEMINI/NICI AND DETECTION OF ADDITIONAL (PLANET-INDUCED?) DISK STRUCTURE AT SMALL SEPARATIONS

We report the first independent, second epoch (re-)detection of a directly imaged protoplanet candidate. Using L' high-contrast imaging of HD 100546 taken with the Near-Infrared Coronagraph and Imager on Gemini South, we recover ''HD 100546 b'' with a position and brightness consistent with the original Very Large Telescope/NAos-COnica detection from Quanz et al., although data obtained after 2013 will be required to decisively demonstrate common proper motion. HD 100546 b may be spatially resolved, up to ≈12-13 AU in diameter, and is embedded in a finger of thermal IR-bright, polarized emission extending inward to at least 0.''3. Standard hot-start models imply a mass of ≈15 M{sub J} . However, if HD 100546 b is newly formed or made visible by a circumplanetary disk, both of which are plausible, its mass is significantly lower (e.g., 1-7 M{sub J} ). Additionally, we discover a thermal IR-bright disk feature, possibly a spiral density wave, at roughly the same angular separation as HD 100546 b but 90° away. Our interpretation of this feature as a spiral arm is not decisive, but modeling analyses using spiral density wave theory implies a wave launching point exterior to ≈0.''45 embedded within the visible disk structure: plausibly evidence formore » a second, hitherto unseen, wide-separation planet. With one confirmed protoplanet candidate and evidence for one to two others, HD 100546 is an important evolutionary precursor to intermediate-mass stars with multiple super-Jovian planets at moderate/wide separations like HR 8799.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [13] ; ; ; ;  [14] ; ;  [15] more »; « less
  1. NAOJ, Subaru Telescope, 650 N' Aohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)
  2. Division of Liberal Arts, Kogashin University, 1-24-2, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinijuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan)
  3. Department of Mathematics and Physics, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka 259-1293 (Japan)
  4. Astrophysics Department, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
  5. Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA96002 (United States)
  6. Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)
  7. Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 7 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States)
  8. Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
  9. Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)
  10. Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
  11. Department of Astronomy, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States)
  12. H. L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St Norman, OK 73019 (United States)
  13. Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)
  14. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
  15. Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22364886
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 796; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; BRIGHTNESS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DENSITY; DETECTION; IMAGES; INFRARED RADIATION; MASS; PHOTON EMISSION; PLANETS; PRECURSOR; PROPER MOTION; STARS; TELESCOPES