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Title: X-ray emission from η Carinae near periastron in 2009. I. A two-state solution

X-ray emission from the supermassive binary system η Car declines sharply around periastron. This X-ray minimum has two distinct phases—the lowest flux phase in the first ∼3 weeks and a brighter phase thereafter. In 2009, the Chandra X-ray Observatory monitored the first phase five times and found the lowest observed flux at ∼1.9 × 10{sup –12} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} (3-8 keV). The spectral shape changed such that the hard band above ∼4 keV dropped quickly at the beginning and the soft band flux gradually decreased to its lowest observed value in ∼2 weeks. The hard band spectrum had begun to recover by that time. This spectral variation suggests that the shocked gas producing the hottest X-ray gas near the apex of the wind-wind collision (WWC) is blocked behind the dense inner wind of the primary star, which later occults slightly cooler gas downstream. Shocked gas previously produced by the system at earlier orbital phases is suggested to produce the faint residual X-ray emission seen when the emission near the apex is completely blocked by the primary wind. The brighter phase is probably caused by the re-appearance of the WWC plasma, whose emissivity significantly declined during the occultation. Wemore » interpret this to mean that the X-ray minimum is produced by a hybrid mechanism of an occultation and a decline in the emissivity of the WWC shock. We constrain timings of superior conjunction and periastron based on these results.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ; ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6]
  1. CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
  2. Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8605 (Japan)
  3. European Space Agency, Apartado 78, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain)
  4. Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
  5. Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)
  6. School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22357246
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 784; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; COLLISIONS; ECLIPSE; EMISSION; EMISSIVITY; HEAT EXCHANGERS; KEV RANGE; PLASMA; SPECTRA; STARS; STELLAR WINDS; X RADIATION