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Title: Weighing 'El Gordo' with a precision scale: Hubble space telescope weak-lensing analysis of the merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102–4915 at z = 0.87

We present a Hubble Space Telescope weak-lensing study of the merging galaxy cluster 'El Gordo' (ACT-CL J0102–4915) at z = 0.87 discovered by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) collaboration as the strongest Sunyaev-Zel'dovich decrement in its ∼1000 deg{sup 2} survey. Our weak-lensing analysis confirms that ACT-CL J0102–4915 is indeed an extreme system consisting of two massive (≳ 10{sup 15} M {sub ☉} each) subclusters with a projected separation of ∼0.7 h{sub 70}{sup −1} Mpc. This binary mass structure revealed by our lensing study is consistent with the cluster galaxy distribution and the dynamical study carried out with 89 spectroscopic members. We estimate the mass of ACT-CL J0102–4915 by simultaneously fitting two axisymmetric Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profiles allowing their centers to vary. We use only a single parameter for the NFW mass profile by enforcing the mass-concentration relation from numerical simulations. Our Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo analysis shows that the masses of the northwestern (NW) and the southeastern (SE) components are M{sub 200c}=(1.38±0.22)×10{sup 15} h{sub 70}{sup −1} M{sub ⊙} and (0.78±0.20)×10{sup 15} h{sub 70}{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}, respectively, where the quoted errors include only 1σ statistical uncertainties determined by the finite number of source galaxies. These mass estimates are subject to additional uncertainties (20%-30%) duemore » to the possible presence of triaxiality, correlated/uncorrelated large scale structure, and departure of the cluster profile from the NFW model. The lensing-based velocity dispersions are 1133{sub −61}{sup +58} km s{sup −1} and 1064{sub −66}{sup +62} km s{sup −1} for the NW and SE components, respectively, which are consistent with their spectroscopic measurements (1290 ± 134 km s{sup –1} and 1089 ± 200 km s{sup –1}, respectively). The centroids of both components are tightly constrained (∼4'') and close to the optical luminosity centers. The X-ray and mass peaks are spatially offset by ∼8'' (∼62 h{sub 70}{sup −1} kpc), which is significant at the ∼2σ confidence level. The mass peak, however, does not lead the gas peak in the direction expected if we are viewing the cluster soon after first core passage during a high speed merger. Under the assumption that the merger is happening in the plane of the sky, extrapolation of the two NFW halos to a radius r{sub 200a}=2.4 h{sub 70}{sup −1} Mpc yields a combined mass of M{sub 200a}=(3.13±0.56)×10{sup 15} h{sub 70}{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. This extrapolated total mass is consistent with our two-component-based dynamical analysis and previous X-ray measurements, projecting ACT-CL J0102–4915 to be the most massive cluster at z > 0.6 known to date.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ; ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ; ;  [5]
  1. Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)
  2. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghysen Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)
  3. Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)
  4. Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)
  5. Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Ponticia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22357189
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 785; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABUNDANCE; CONCENTRATION RATIO; COSMOLOGY; DISPERSIONS; DISTRIBUTION; EXTRAPOLATION; GALAXY CLUSTERS; GRAVITATIONAL LENSES; LUMINOSITY; MARKOV PROCESS; MASS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; RED SHIFT; SPACE; TELESCOPES; UNIVERSE; VELOCITY; X RADIATION; X-RAY GALAXIES