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Title: Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of multiphase galactic disks with star formation feedback. II. Synthetic H I 21 cm line observations

We use three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations of the turbulent, multiphase atomic interstellar medium (ISM) to construct and analyze synthetic H I 21 cm emission and absorption lines. Our analysis provides detailed tests of 21 cm observables as physical diagnostics of the atomic ISM. In particular, we construct (1) the 'observed' spin temperature, T{sub s,obs}(v{sub ch})≡T{sub B}(v{sub ch})/[1−e{sup −τ(v{sub c}{sub h})}], and its optical-depth weighted mean T {sub s,} {sub obs}; (2) the absorption-corrected ''observed'' column density, N{sub H,obs}∝∫dv{sub ch}T{sub B}(v{sub ch})τ(v{sub ch})/[1−e{sup −τ(v{sub c}{sub h})}]; and (3) the 'observed' fraction of cold neutral medium (CNM), f {sub c,} {sub obs} ≡ T{sub c} /T {sub s,} {sub obs} for T{sub c} the CNM temperature; we compare each observed parameter with true values obtained from line-of-sight (LOS) averages in the simulation. Within individual velocity channels, T {sub s,} {sub obs}(v {sub ch}) is within a factor 1.5 of the true value up to τ(v {sub ch}) ∼ 10. As a consequence, N {sub H,} {sub obs} and T{sub s,} {sub obs} are, respectively, within 5% and 12% of the true values for 90% and 99% of LOSs. The optically thin approximation significantly underestimates N {sub H} for τ > 1. Providedmore » that T{sub c} is constrained, an accurate observational estimate of the CNM mass fraction can be obtained down to 20%. We show that T{sub s,} {sub obs} cannot be used to distinguish the relative proportions of warm and thermally unstable atomic gas, although the presence of thermally unstable gas can be discerned from 21 cm lines with 200 K ≲ T{sub s,} {sub obs}(v {sub ch}) ≲ 1000 K. Our mock observations successfully reproduce and explain the observed distribution of the brightness temperature, optical depth, and spin temperature in Roy et al. The threshold column density for CNM seen in observations is also reproduced by our mock observations. We explain this observed threshold behavior in terms of vertical equilibrium in the local Milky Way's ISM disk.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
  2. Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22356997
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 786; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABSORPTION; APPROXIMATIONS; DENSITY; DISTRIBUTION; EMISSION; EQUILIBRIUM; FEEDBACK; HYDRODYNAMICS; INTERSTELLAR SPACE; LOSSES; MASS; MILKY WAY; SIMULATION; SPIN; STARS; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; VELOCITY