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Title: Gravito-turbulent disks in three dimensions: Turbulent velocities versus depth

Characterizing turbulence in protoplanetary disks is crucial for understanding how they accrete and spawn planets. Recent measurements of spectral line broadening promise to diagnose turbulence, with different lines probing different depths. We use three-dimensional local hydrodynamic simulations of cooling, self-gravitating disks to resolve how motions driven by 'gravito-turbulence' vary with height. We find that gravito-turbulence is practically as vigorous at altitude as at depth. Even though gas at altitude is much too rarefied to be itself self-gravitating, it is strongly forced by self-gravitating overdensities at the midplane. The long-range nature of gravity means that turbulent velocities are nearly uniform vertically, increasing by just a factor of two from midplane to surface, even as the density ranges over nearly three orders of magnitude. The insensitivity of gravito-turbulence to height contrasts with the behavior of disks afflicted by the magnetorotational instability (MRI); in the latter case, non-circular velocities increase by at least a factor of 15 from midplane to surface, with various non-ideal effects only magnifying this factor. The distinct vertical profiles of gravito-turbulence versus MRI turbulence may be used in conjunction with measurements of non-thermal linewidths at various depths to identify the source of transport in protoplanetary disks.
Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Department of Astronomy, UC Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22356508
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 789; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCRETION DISKS; ALTITUDE; DENSITY; GRAVITATION; HYDRODYNAMICS; INSTABILITY; LINE BROADENING; LINE WIDTHS; NMR IMAGING; PLANETS; PROTOPLANETS; SIMULATION; SURFACES; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; TURBULENCE; VELOCITY