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Title: Investigations of protostellar outflow launching and gas entrainment: Hydrodynamic simulations and molecular emission

We investigate protostellar outflow evolution, gas entrainment, and star formation efficiency using radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of isolated, turbulent low-mass cores. We adopt an X-wind launching model, in which the outflow rate is coupled to the instantaneous protostellar accretion rate and evolution. We vary the outflow collimation angle from θ = 0.01-0.1 and find that even well-collimated outflows effectively sweep up and entrain significant core mass. The Stage 0 lifetime ranges from 0.14-0.19 Myr, which is similar to the observed Class 0 lifetime. The star formation efficiency of the cores spans 0.41-0.51. In all cases, the outflows drive strong turbulence in the surrounding material. Although the initial core turbulence is purely solenoidal by construction, the simulations converge to approximate equipartition between solenoidal and compressive motions due to a combination of outflow driving and collapse. When compared to simulation of a cluster of protostars, which is not gravitationally centrally condensed, we find that the outflows drive motions that are mainly solenoidal. The final turbulent velocity dispersion is about twice the initial value of the cores, indicating that an individual outflow is easily able to replenish turbulent motions on sub-parsec scales. We post-process the simulations to produce synthetic molecular line emission maps of {supmore » 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O and evaluate how well these tracers reproduce the underlying mass and velocity structure.« less
Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22351469
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 784; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; APPROXIMATIONS; CARBON 12; CARBON 13; CARBON MONOXIDE; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DISPERSIONS; EMISSION; LIFETIME; MASS; OXYGEN 18; PROTOSTARS; SIMULATION; STARS; TURBULENCE