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Title: Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin

Conformational differences between myoglobin structures are studied. Most structural differences in whale myoglobin beyond the uncertainty threshold can be correlated with a few specific structural factors. There are always exceptions and a search for additional factors is needed. The results might have serious implications for biological insights from conformational differences. Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing tomore » the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific ‘unusual’ ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty thresholds. The binding of unusual ligands by myoglobin, leading to crystal-induced distortions, suggests that some of the conformational differences between the apo and holo structures might not be ‘functionally important’ but rather artifacts caused by the binding of ‘unusual’ substrate analogs. The causes of P6 symmetry in myoglobin crystals and the relationship between crystal and solution structures are also discussed.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [2]
  1. BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States)
  4. Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22351303
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Acta Crystallographica. Section D: Biological Crystallography; Journal Volume: 70; Journal Issue: Pt 2; Other Information: PMCID: PMC3940193; PMID: 24531482; PUBLISHER-ID: dz5300; OAI: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3940193; Copyright (c) International Union of Crystallography 2014; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
Denmark
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; CALCULATION METHODS; COMPACTS; CORRELATIONS; CRYSTALS; EXCEPTIONS; HISTIDINE; HYDROGEN; LIGANDS; MYOGLOBIN; ORIGIN; PROTEINS; SUBSTRATES; SYMMETRY; VALIDATION