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Title: Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage

We demonstrate an alternative to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for imaging surface potential. The open-loop, single-pass technique applies a low-frequency AC voltage to the atomic force microscopy tip while driving the cantilever near its resonance frequency. Frequency mixing due to the nonlinear capacitance gives intermodulation products of the two drive frequencies near the cantilever resonance, where they are measured with high signal to noise ratio. Analysis of this intermodulation response allows for quantitative reconstruction of the contact potential difference. We derive the theory of the method, validate it with numerical simulation and a control experiment, and we demonstrate its utility for fast imaging of the surface photo-voltage on an organic photo-voltaic material.
Authors:
; ; ;  [1] ; ;  [2]
  1. Nanostructure Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)
  2. Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22351135
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 105; Journal Issue: 14; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; CAPACITANCE; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTRIC UTILITIES; FREQUENCY MIXING; GAS UTILITIES; NONLINEAR PROBLEMS; PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT; RESONANCE; SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO; SURFACE POTENTIAL; SURFACES