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Title: The W40 region in the gould belt: An embedded cluster and H II region at the junction of filaments

We present a multiwavelength study of the W40 star-forming region using infrared (IR) observations in the UKIRT JHK bands, Spitzer Infrared Array Camera bands, and Herschel PACS bands, 2.12 μm H{sub 2} narrowband imaging, and radio continuum observations from GMRT (610 and 1280 MHz), in a field of view (FoV) of ∼34' × 40'. Archival Spitzer observations in conjunction with near-IR observations are used to identify 1162 Class II/III and 40 Class I sources in the FoV. The nearest-neighbor stellar surface density analysis shows that the majority of these young stellar objects (YSOs) constitute the embedded cluster centered on the high-mass source IRS 1A South. Some YSOs, predominantly the younger population, are distributed along and trace the filamentary structures at lower stellar surface density. The cluster radius is measured to be 0.44 pc—matching well with the extent of radio emission—with a peak density of 650 pc{sup –2}. The JHK data are used to map the extinction in the region, which is subsequently used to compute the cloud mass—126 M {sub ☉} and 71 M {sub ☉} for the central cluster and the northern IRS 5 region, respectively. H{sub 2} narrowband imaging shows significant emission, which prominently resembles fluorescent emission arisingmore » at the borders of dense regions. Radio continuum analysis shows that this region has a blister morphology, with the radio peak coinciding with a protostellar source. Free-free emission spectral energy distribution analysis is used to obtain physical parameters of the overall photoionized region and the IRS 5 sub-region. This multiwavelength scenario is suggestive of star formation having resulted from the merging of multiple filaments to form a hub. Star formation seems to have taken place in two successive epochs, with the first epoch traced by the central cluster and the high-mass star(s)—followed by a second epoch that is spreading into the filaments as uncovered by the Class I sources and even younger protostellar sources along the filaments. The IRS 5 H II region displays indications of swept-up material that has possibly led to the formation of protostars.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5]
  1. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)
  2. Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 s/n Porto (Portugal)
  3. Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (IGN), Alfonso XII 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain)
  4. Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France)
  5. Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Uljanov str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22348449
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 779; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; CONNECTORS; DENSITY; ELECTRIC CONTACTS; ENERGY SPECTRA; FILAMENTS; FLUORESCENCE; MASS; PERTURBED ANGULAR CORRELATION; PHOTOIONIZATION; PROTOSTARS; SEMICONDUCTOR JUNCTIONS; STARS; SUPERCONDUCTING JUNCTIONS; SURFACES